Now Is the Time

The Urgency of the New Evangelization

At the beginning of his pontificate, Saint John Paul the Great coined the term “new evangelization” to describe a great urgency facing the Church. Nearly forty years on, the use of the term is now widespread among Catholics involved in almost any type of apostolate or ministry. We see diocesan and parish positions dedicated to the new evangelization. The term is employed in numerous articles and as conference themes. There are apostolates and, if I may, even a think-tank dedicated to the new evangelization. These are good developments in as much as they are aimed at attempting to address the pressing issue identified by St. John Paul. Yet, with popularity comes attendant dangers, many of which have been realized. One danger is that with so many parties promoting the new evangelization there appear to be inconsistent interpretations of its meaning.

Many suggest that the new evangelization is about waking up nominal “pew-sitting” Catholics, the so-called “evangelizing of the sacramentalized.”1 Others say it is bringing lapsed Catholics back to the Church. There are suggestions that it is getting back to a more purposeful, kerygmatic proclamation of the faith. Others argue that it is all about forming disciples. All of these are aspects of it, but none grasp its entirety. Perhaps the greatest danger is the likelihood the new evangelization’s popularity may be due to novelty-generated excitement and will swiftly disappear with faddish dispatch. To avoid these dangers, its full meaning must become more widely known. This meaning becomes clearer when viewed in its historical context.

Historical Background
Saint John Paul II is most widely credited with coining the phrase “new evangelization.” He first used it during his initial pilgrimage to Poland in 1979 in a homily at the Shrine of the Holy Cross in Mogiła.2 He continued to employ it copiously throughout his pontificate. However, John Paul II does not take the credit for the phrase. He gives credit to Blessed Paul VI, and his post-synodal apostolic exhortation, Evangelii nuntiandi (EN).3

According to Paul VI, the entire purpose of the Second Vatican Council was to prepare the Church to proclaim the Gospel more effectively to contemporary society through “a new period of evangelization” (EN 2). For his part, John Paul II indicated that EN should be considered the definitive interpretation of the Council’s teaching on the Church’s duty to evangelize, and that his encyclical, Redemptoris missio (RM), is an update, a new synthesis of EN, that clarifies concepts and names specific obstacles to the new evangelization.4 John Paul, however, indicates that the need for a new evangelization did not originate with the Council Fathers. It was felt much earlier, and preparations had begun as early as Leo XIII’s Rerum novarum which initiated the Church’s engagement with changes in world social structures.

St. Pius X continued this trajectory, dedicating his pontificate to renewing all things in Christ.5 Popes Pius XI and Pius XII would again take up this concern, and begin planning for a new ecumenical council for this purpose, but of course no council would come about during either pontificate. A growing concern for the renewal of society and the Church were major reasons given by St. John XXIII for his convoking the Second Vatican Council.

The Second Vatican Council’s call for renewing faith in the lives of Catholics, and for greater zeal in the Church’s evangelization efforts, becomes the major concern for the Third General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops (1973), resulting in Evangelii nuntiandi (EN). By the time of John Paul’s pontificate, the urgency for a new evangelization had reached such a crisis that promoting it marks the entirety of his pontificate and, as he explains, it is the reason for his prolific international travels (RM 1).6 The urgency for a new evangelization continued with Pope Benedict XVI, who established the Pontifical Council for Promoting the New Evangelization in 2010, and focused the XIII Ordinary Synod of Bishops in October 2012 entirely on the new evangelization. Moreover, he highlighted this renewed effort by declaring a year of faith, and beginning an encyclical on faith which would be completed by his successor. It’s clear this emphasis on the new evangelization continues with Pope Francis.7 Those with ears to hear cannot miss the Popes’ steadily increasing drumbeat of urgency for renewal of zeal for the Lord’s mandate of mission, a mission that in some ways must now consider even many baptized. The tempo of urgency has now reached its crescendo; we will succeed, or the Church and society will suffer catastrophic consequences.

The gradual increase in the Church’s sense of urgency for renewal in mission over the last 150 years, has taken the form of a call to a new evangelization. Yet, the new evangelization is not something entirely new, though it does seem that only recently has the message begun to be widely noticed. Nevertheless, we still need to ask what more precisely is intended by this new evangelization? The difficulty in answering this question can be traced to the confusion over the precise definition of “evangelization.” So, we should clarify what the Church means by it.

What is Evangelization?
Definition: Blessed Paul VI goes so far as to say that the Church exists to evangelize (EN 14), being linked to it in her essence (EN 15). Some aspects of evangelization are so important (e.g. kerygma, preaching, catechesis) that sometimes they are mistaken for the whole of it (EN 22). But he warns that any definition of evangelization needs to be complete and include all of “its richness, complexity and dynamism,” or else we risk diminishing if not distorting it (EN 17). In its most complete sense, evangelization is bringing the Good News to all people (EN 2), but we need to remind ourselves that this News is more a Person than a thing. From this vantage, evangelization is the entirety of Church’s pastoral work and her mission, which together comprise her very essence.8 It is almost everything the Church does (EN 24). In other words, the Church serves the Lord’s mandate to evangelize not only in what we traditionally assign to mission, but also in her pastoral care of the faithful.

Purpose: Evangelization’s purpose is to form Christ’s disciples, transforming them in Him. For this reason, the fruits of evangelization mustn’t be confused with misguided “metrics,” such as increasing numbers of people at Mass, numbers of bodies in adult education, or coming through RCIA, or the numbers attending teen programs. In fact, authentic evangelization could conceivably result in reduced numbers.9 The numbers of those who understand the radical nature of Christianity for the way we live our lives are not large. Fewer still are prepared to embrace such a life. The ongoing conversion, which is the purpose of evangelization, also entails societal conversion. The goal of evangelization is the transformation of persons and societies, in every aspect of their lives and environments (EN 18). Consequently, fruits of efforts need to be assessed in qualitative, rather than quantitative, terms; we must be looking for visible transformation of persons and parishes rather than at numbers reached by programs or events.

Methods: There are a variety of methods that should be employed for evangelization. EN identifies six general categories into which these manifold methods fall: witness, pre-evangelization, kerygma (initial proclamation), catechesis, preaching, and the Sacraments (especially the Eucharist—the heart of the new evangelization). These categories reveal the expanse of evangelization. It is not solely the Gospel’s initial proclamation (kerygma).

While each category is distinct and mainly corresponds to the different phases of evangelization, there is a profound interconnectedness among them. This interdependence indicates that one may not draw rigid divisions between the categories. For example, while witness is a distinct category, it is integral to every other category as well. Nevertheless, a particular method of witness may be more appropriate for use within, say catechesis, but take a different approach for the kerygma. Here we will mention only two categories: witness and kerygma.

Personal witness is the starting point for all evangelization. A Christian disciple is such to the degree his actions are witness of his love for God and others, and of God’s love for man. Consciously or not, the unbeliever will evaluate Christ and Christianity through what he sees in Christians. Witness also necessarily entails the use of words in order to articulate the Gospel, along with its relevance for life. There can be no evangelization without this authentic, integral witness of the faithful.

Kerygma is the initial proclamation of the Gospel to non-believers, but the form it takes is also necessary for those who are religiously indifferent, and all others who do not adequately know Christ. It should seamlessly integrate with pre-evangelization before it, and with catechesis after. This first proclamation introduces the listener to the Person and work of Jesus Christ, having the intention of helping him to fall in love with Jesus, and to willingly commit and conform himself to Him. This initial proclamation can be credible only when received from authentic disciples; that is, from those who know Christ intimately, and have made sufficient progress in conforming themselves to Him. Kerygmatic proclamation must be an authentic encounter with Jesus Christ Himself through the Christian witness. This witness must have the character of joyful sincerity, sober enthusiasm, and it must give the hearer the sense he is coming to know Jesus Himself rather than simply learning about Him. It is impossible to give oneself to someone you have only heard about. The most effective methods will be centered on a direct reading and discussion of Scripture, especially the Gospels.

The importance of effective kerygma is highlighted by the prerequisite for next phase of evangelization. The light of faith is required to illuminate catechesis. Without a living faith that comes from total commitment to Christ, which is the fruit of the kerygma, even good catechesis will be bear little fruit. I would argue that the widespread failure to understand and employ adequate kerygma is at the root of the abject failure of postbaptismal catechesis and the catechumenate over the last 50 years.10

Content: One of the most important considerations with respect to content is the question of what is both necessary and appropriate for each phase of evangelization. Again, we must limit our consideration to two categories. Attention over the last couple of decades has focused on the grave need for more effective catechesis. There is still relative neglect of pre-evangelization and kerygma and this has hampered the fruitfulness of the generally improving state of catechesis.

Because it is aimed at preparing unbelievers to hear the Gospel, the content of pre-evangelization is dictated primarily by considerations such as the situation of the person(s) being addressed, the venue in which the pre-evangelization takes place, the stage of evangelization being considered, and cultural and social considerations which make it difficult for hearers to consider fairly the Gospel message. Pre-evangelization’s content ranges from traditional apologetics, to helping someone consider existential questions from which our frenetic workaday lives keep us distracted.

The necessary content for kerygma consists of the essentials of the faith required to permit the hearer to fall in love with Jesus Christ, and to willingly and earnestly turn away from those aspects of his life in contradiction with the Gospel, in order to conform himself to Christ. Authentic kerygmatic evangelization requires at a minimum, “the name, the teaching, the life, the promises, the kingdom, and the mystery of Jesus of Nazareth, the Son of God” (EN 22; see 27). In practice, while this touches on the entirety of the faith, it is not given to the same depth, or with the same systematic presentation, as catechesis. Rather, it is presented in a way that introduces the unbeliever to Jesus in an intimate way. Kerygma makes it clear that the Gospel demands a personal engagement; it is a personal invitation requiring a response. An effective initial proclamation will be made considering the context of the personal and societal life of the person who receives it (RM 44). However, even at the level of kerygma, this personal aspect must not confuse the unbeliever into thinking faith in Christ is a private or individualistic affair. The public and communal-ecclesial aspects of Christian faith must also be clear, or else one “mis-evangelizes.”

The liturgy and Sacraments must also be effectively incorporated into the kerygma. Silence about them until catechesis leaves the mistaken impression that they are “add-ons” rather than belonging to the essence of Christianity. They must be presented as the Christian’s concrete, temporal entering into the Paschal Mystery. The content can be summarized as a personal introduction to the Person of Jesus Christ, as well as an introduction to His work during His public life, the work of His Passion, death, and Resurrection, through the action of the Holy Spirit, His continuing presence in His Church and liturgy, and His promise of eternal life in glorified bodies to His faithful disciples. Finally, the basics concerning impediments to a flourishing faith need to be mentioned. The hearer must understand sin in general, and some specifics about what comprises sin.

What is New About It?
In order to understand better the new evangelization, it might be best to situate it within the structure of pastoral care and mission. Because evangelization encompasses most everything that the Church does (EN 18), it can be subdivided into the categories of pastoral care of the faithful and mission (RM 33). We have already mentioned many aspects of pastoral care, including nourishing the faithful through preaching the Gospel, and celebrating the Sacraments, especially the Eucharist; and guiding them in the truth. As such, pastoral care presupposes a community of Christians who are fully, sacramentally incorporated into the Church, and who try to live as disciples of Christ. However, there are varying degrees to which baptized and confirmed Catholics understand the meaning of, and authentically live, according to the obligations of discipleship. There reaches a point at which a Christian’s ignorance of the faith, and his obligation to discipleship, is so deficient that pastoral care will need to employ mission-focused methods like the kerygma. The average Catholic’s need for the kerygma brings pastoral care into contact with the new evangelization (RM 34).

John Paul II indicates that missio ad gentes and the new evangelization are also intimately linked (RM 33). The term “mission” arises from the phrase missio ad gentes, the sending of Christians to the nations, that is, to non-Christians. The new evangelization is also for societies and peoples who were at one time, predominantly Christian. These societies are still marked by Gospel values, even if individual acceptance of the Gospel is no longer widespread. In other words, new mission-influenced methods are needed for peoples who think they have heard the Gospel, but have not accepted it, no longer practice the faith, or have consciously left it (see RM 33, 37).

We can see that John Paul situates the new evangelization between pastoral care and mission, having an overlap with each. Moreover, he declares that the boundaries between the new evangelization, and its neighbors, are not always “clearly definable” (RM 34). The import of this lack of clear borders demands that we not create artificial barriers between pastoral care and the new evangelization, or between new evangelization and mission, so as to undermine effective apostolic action through a mutual exchange between either interconnected pairs (i.e. pastoral care—new evangelization, or new evangelization—mission).

This brings us to the question: “what exactly is “new” about the new evangelization?” In one sense, there is nothing new. Indeed, in Saint John Paul II’s first use of the term, he said, “A new evangelization has begun, as if it were a new proclamation, even if in reality it is the same as ever.”11 The Church always has, and always is, evangelizing, as its meaning from Evangelii nuntiandi indicates. The then Cardinal Ratzinger was emphatic about this point saying, that the Church evangelizes when “She celebrates the eucharistic mystery every day, administers the sacraments, proclaims the word of life—the Word of God, and commits herself to the causes of justice and charity. And this evangelization bears fruit: It gives light and joy, it gives the path of life to many people; many others live, often unknowingly, the light and the warmth that radiate from this permanent evangelization.”12 Truth never changes; the Gospel delivered to the Apostles is the same Gospel proclaimed and celebrated in the Sacraments today. Yet, while this truth has been proclaimed for 2000 years, and has borne much fruit, societal circumstances have changed greatly. There is now the need for something new to address new challenges. John Paul declared that evangelization today must be new in ardor, new in method, and new in means of expression.13 Before addressing each in turn, let us first look at some new circumstances and how they impact the new evangelization.

New Circumstances: Every pope since Blessed Paul VI has expressed common concern over a number of new circumstances with which the Church must contend if she is to be effective in spreading the Gospel. Paul VI highlighted widespread unbelief as an overriding challenge, making explicit reference to Henri de Lubac’s masterwork, the Drama of Atheistic Humanism (see EN 55). His concern was not misplaced. Two recent CARA studies identify a lack of belief in God as a significant cause of young people leaving the Catholic Church.14 Unbelief, together with a mistaken understanding of tolerance, have given rise to a view of secular society which is stripped of the public presence of God. There is now the sense that to promote the interests of man, God must be denied, or at least expelled from the public square. Abetting this vacuous secularism is a consumerist materialism in which the supreme value of man’s flourishing is to be found in the pursuit of ease and pleasure. Not surprisingly, the effect of this on society, including on many Christians, has been an increasing sense of indifference, and even hostility, toward God, and matters of faith (EN 56, RM 36). These groups—non-believers, former believers, and indifferent believers—prove to be quite resistant to evangelization. The first two groups are unable, or unwilling, to consider transcendent questions. Many refuse even to entertain such questions because they sense their connection to the demands of a divine absolute, and so they tend to respond with hostility. Former believers often presume they understand Christianity, have tried it, and rejected it. Indifferentism has been further exacerbated by a religious relativism which asserts that one religion is as good as another, affecting even the People of God. The result is that enthusiasm for evangelization has waned (RM 36). Only indefatigable witness can overcome this inertia, and so we need to reinvigorate Christians’ zeal for the salvation of souls.

New Ardor: We have seen that there is an urgent need for increased fervor among the Catholic faithful, something that was recognized more than a century ago. While there is an argument to be made that things have improved over the last 40 years, few would argue the progress has been adequate to the challenges we face. But we must be mindful that authentic, evangelical enthusiasm is borne from a mature understanding, and living of the faith. Attempts at shortcuts to increased fervor by means of emotional manipulation, bandwagon appeals, or temporary programs will result in short-lived, superficial, and ineffective responses. Authentic evangelical ardor will spread as increasing numbers of Mass-attending Catholics are shepherded into a more mature understanding and living of the faith. Catechetical methods alone will be insufficient. To bring about authentic evangelical ardor, we will have to actualize the incipient, but largely dormant, baptismal faith of some, to provide a kerygmatic encounter with Jesus Christ for others; and, for those who have a living experience of friendship with Christ, more effective catechesis may be needed. For most, effective guidance in, and concrete opportunities for growing in spiritual maturity is required. Forming committed disciples amongst todays varied challenges will be a slow and arduous pilgrimage, but it must be started now, through more effective and deliberate steps.

New Methods: New methods of effective evangelization must consider societal influences on the people being served, and even here, methods will vary based upon the evangelization phase, and the general background of different demographics (e.g. age groups, cultural background, and educational level). Methods focused on a particular evangelization phase (e.g. kerygma) will need to consider the purpose of the phase, as well as the demographic makeup. While it will not be feasible to tailor different methodologies for every demographic group, one should be ready to recognize that methodologies effective for a young, affluent parish demographic, having a high average educational level, may bear little fruit with a community of say, undocumented migrant workers coming from countries with a predominantly Catholic-influenced culture, and adjust as appropriate. For example, outreach methods for the first group might be most fruitful with social media, while the second group may require considerable effort in relationship development, and trust building. The first group may better respond to socially-focused activities, while the second group will be looking for parish-supported expressions of popular piety familiar to their specific cultural groups. What will be common to the successful method, whatever particular form it may take, will include the encounter of those being evangelized with authentic witnesses of Jesus Christ, such that they will experience Christ and His love through them. Effective methods will also include personal outreach and invitation, rather than relying on impersonal, general announcements of programs.

New Means of Expression: The Gospel message is always the same, and yet it is always new. The truth never changes, but it’s infinite depth has the capacity to answer any new question, and address every new challenge that arises. If the Gospel is to be understood and freely, and fairly, considered, the approach taken to presenting it must take into consideration the prevailing circumstances of the society in which it is being proclaimed. In addition to the societal changes discussed above, we must also recognize that since Pentecost, Jesus Christ could be presented as the solution to the problem of sin in any society, even if the precise meaning of sin needed clarification. This is no longer the case. Today, personal sin is increasingly, condescendingly dismissed as antiquated and naive. A proclamation that assumes sin to be a problem is likely to be summarily dismissed at the outset. We may first have to convince people why sin is a problem. Another important consideration for evangelization is an increasing demand that propositions be verified by personal experience for them to be credible, and at the same time, the propositions must contain obviously practical application if they are to be worth serious consideration. There has been much work done in the academy that has application to these challenges. If the truth of Jesus Christ and His Church is to be compellingly shown to be the answer to a deeply felt, and ubiquitous problem, it will most fruitfully begin with an appeal to common human experiences in order to help the hearer recognize the problem, and why it seems so difficult to surmount. Mother of the Americas Institute has found a fruitful starting point to be today’s pervasive problem of loneliness, and man’s universal desire for fulfilling relationships. Presenting “communion” as the solution to this problem, and as the central integrating theme of the Gospel, is an effective approach for expressing the entirety of the Catholic faith.15 Other means of expressing the faith effectively to those less attuned to loneliness, and their insatiable desire for relationships, must be developed. As societies continue to slide away from Gospel values, and people become increasingly resistant to traditional approaches, additional means of expressing the faith that can gain a hearing will become increasingly necessary. Nevertheless, traditional approaches mustn’t be abandoned, but presented alongside newer approaches, as there will always be some who will respond better to the traditional approaches.

Some Practical Suggestions
It isn’t possible here, to propose a comprehensive approach for a fruitful new evangelization. What I can do is to suggest a few important first steps. First, let me suggest what not to do. Do not start any parish program, office, or initiative dedicated specifically to the new evangelization. The new evangelization should not be viewed as a new program, but as doing what the Church has always done, but accommodated to new challenges. The new evangelization must infuse all aspects of ministry to family, parish, and diocese.

As such, a broad assessment of existing parish and diocesan offices, projects, and programs should be a first step. The assessment’s purpose is to identify gaps to be filled, and adjustments to be made, in order to bring Jesus Christ effectively to the faithful, and to the world. One helpful resource with which to begin this effort is Sherry Weddell’s book Forming Intentional Disciples.16 While not a “how to” for this assessment, it identifies challenges, and provides helpful insights about discipleship necessary for evaluating existing ministries. Another resource is Mother of the Americas Institute’s tutorials on the new evangelization which discuss a variety of considerations for the new evangelization (available at

Effective evangelization also requires holy witnesses. Therefore, priority should be given to spiritual formation, perhaps initially focusing on those already involved in ministry. Weddell’s book makes it clear that we should not make any assumptions about the adequacy of their spiritual lives. All involved in ministry must be committed to being Christian disciples. While there are many possibilities, I would propose also using Forming Intentional Disciples to focus on discipleship, and employing Father William Watson’s adaptation of St. Ignatius of Loyola’s Spiritual Exercises, called Forty Weeks, for spiritual maturation. 17

A final priority must be to focus on an effective initial proclamation, the kerygma. There must be an extended period introducing the Person and work of Jesus Christ in the evangelization phase of RCIA; kerygma must also be a prelude to all post-baptismal catechesis. Again, the great failure of even good catechesis has been in trying to catechize too soon. A commitment of faith is needed for fruitful catechesis, and will be given only when someone believes he personally knows and trusts Jesus Christ. The initial proclamation must be presented by authentic witnesses, using the Gospels, and other resources, which permit someone to understand Who Christ is, the offer He makes to us, the requirements for accepting His offer, and the consequences of saying “no.” I cannot provide a recommended program, but a couple of helpful works might be Fulton Sheen’s Life of Christ, and Frank Sheed’s To Know Christ Jesus.18

The desire for new evangelization is a wake-up call, telling us that time is running out. Europe and the United States are nearly mission territories, and Latin America is not far behind. This call is neither recent, nor for a short-term project. It is a reminder of the perennial vocation to witness and to proclaim the Gospel to all men by effective means and methods. We have not yet adequately responded to the warning. We must renew our efforts with increased urgency and determination. Now is the time; the hour is now late.

  1. Pope Paul VI cautions against making the distinction between being evangelized and sacramentalized as this distinction contains within it a diminution in the understanding of sacramental efficacy and an attendant diminution in the meaning of evangelization as we shall see (EN 47).
  2.  John Paul II, Homily at the Shrine of the Holy Cross in Mogiła. available at
  3.  See John Paul II, Crossing the Threshold of Hope, ed. Vittorio Messori (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994), 114.
  4.  Ibid.
  5. See Tertio millenio adveniente, 22.
  6. Fr, Gheddo indicates that Saint John Paul met with the same incomprehension on the part of the bishops as did Paul VI. This was in many ways, his reason for his missionary activities and his writing of RM (see Magister, “Proclamation to the Peoples”).
  7. See Keith Lemna and David H. Delaney, “Three Pathways into the Theological Mind of Pope Francis,” Nova et Vetera English Edition, Vol. 12, No. 1 (2014).
  8. See Second Vatican Council, Ad gentes (AG), Decree On the Mission Activity of the Church, 2.
  9.  See Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, Address to Catechists and Religion Teachers, Jubilee of Catechists, 12 December 2000, I.1.
  10. While there do not seem to be reliable statistics, some Church leaders believe that the rate of loss of newly baptized is as high as 70% within the first year. See Sherry A. Weddell, Forming Intentional Disciples (Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor, 2012), 170, who tells of her conversation with a Cardinal in Rome about the US RCIA “leakage” rate.
  11. See
  12.  Ratzinger, Address to Catechists.
  13. He first mentioned this to the Bishops of CELAM gathered in Port-au-Prince, Haiti on March 9, 1983; see section III. He repeats this in 1999 in his Apostolic Exhortation, Ecclesia in America, 66.
  14.  Mark Gray, “Young people are leaving the faith. Here’s why,” Our Sunday Visitor Newsweekly, August 26, 2016.
  15.  Made for Communion is a free, video based program currently available at
  16. Sherry A. Weddell, Forming Intentional Disciples: The Path to Knowing and Following Jesus (Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor, 2012).
  17. William J. Watson, Forty Weeks: An Ignatian Path to Christ with Sacred Story (Seattle, WA: Sacred Story Press, 2013).
  18.  Fulton J. Sheen, Life of Christ (New York, NY: Image Books, 1977) and Frank Sheed, To Know Christ Jesus (San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press, 1992).
David H. Delaney, PhD About David H. Delaney, PhD

David H. Delaney is Director and Senior Fellow at Mother of the Americas Institute in San Antonio, Texas, a think tank for the new evangelization. His research interests include the Trinity, Christology, ecclesiology, theological anthropology, and the new evangelization. He also is professor of systematic theology teaching seminarians, deacon candidates and laity in the Archdiocese of San Antonio.


  1. Yes we need ignition of a new evangelization! We need to facilitate true maturation of souls in Christ! But – I cannot understand your recommendation of “Forming Intentional Disciples” as a resource, with no mention of the spiritual classics of the Faith. There are spiritual “giants” in our history whose wisdom and practical applications have been well compiled, organized and published by J. Aumann and R. Garrigou-Lagrange, both Dominicans, for examples.

    Has the understanding of St. John of the Cross concerning the development and maturation of the human soul in grace, from its beginnings and toward living union with God, somehow become supplanted? Why? Styles have changed, attention span has shrunk, minds have seemingly become more impatient and shallow, but the human soul has not changed! The treasures of traditional Catholic spirituality seem to have become rejected in our times for psycho-spiritualities du jour.